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Analog-to-digital signal conversion[ edit ] Frank Graywho became famous for inventing the signaling method that came to be used for compatible color television, invented a method to convert analog signals to reflected binary code groups using vacuum tube -based apparatus. Filed inthe method and apparatus were granted a patent in[13] and the name of Gray stuck to the codes.

Goodall, who credited Gray for the idea of the reflected binary code. Position encoders[ edit ] Rotary encoder for angle-measuring devices erori binare 5s in 3-bit binary-reflected Gray code BRGC A Gray code absolute rotary encoder with 13 tracks. Housing, interrupter disk, and light source are in the top; sensing element and support components are in the bottom.

erori binare 5s

Gray codes are used in linear and rotary position encoders absolute encoders and quadrature encoders in preference to weighted binary encoding. This avoids the possibility that, when multiple bits change in the binary representation of a position, a misread will result from some of the bits changing before others. For example, some rotary encoders provide a disk which has an electrically conductive Gray code pattern on concentric rings tracks.

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Each track has a stationary metal spring contact that provides electrical contact to the conductive code pattern. Together, these contacts produce output signals in the form of a Gray code.

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Other encoders employ non-contact mechanisms based on optical or magnetic sensors to produce the Gray code output signals. Regardless of the mechanism or precision of a moving encoder, position measurement error can occur at specific positions at code boundaries because the code may be changing at the exact moment it is read sampled.

A binary output code could cause significant position measurement errors because it is impossible to make all bits change at exactly the same time.

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If, at the moment the position is sampled, some bits have changed and others have not, the sampled position will be incorrect. In the case of absolute encoders, the indicated position may be far away from the actual position and, in the case of incremental encoders, this can corrupt position tracking. In contrast, the Gray code used by position encoders ensures that the codes for any two consecutive positions will differ by only one bit and, consequently, only one bit can change at a time.

In this case, the maximum position error will be small, indicating a position adjacent to the actual position. Genetic algorithms[ edit ] Due to the Hamming distance properties of Gray codes, they are sometimes used in genetic algorithms.

erori binare 5s

Boolean circuit minimization[ edit ] Error correction[ edit ] In modern digital communicationsGray codes play an important role in error correction. For example, in a digital modulation scheme such as QAM where data is typically transmitted in symbols of 4 bits or more, the signal's constellation diagram is arranged so that the bit patterns conveyed by adjacent constellation points differ by only one bit.

By combining this with forward error correction capable of correcting single-bit errors, it is possible for a receiver to correct any transmission errors that cause a constellation point to deviate into the area of an adjacent point. This makes the transmission system less susceptible to noise. Communication between clock domains[ edit ] Main article: Clock domain crossing Digital logic designers use Gray codes extensively for passing multi-bit count information between synchronous logic that operates at different clock frequencies.

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The logic is considered operating in different "clock domains". It is fundamental to the design of large chips that operate with many different clocking frequencies. Cycling through states with minimal effort[ edit ] If a system has to cycle through all possible combinations of on-off states of some set of controls, and the changes of the controls require non-trivial expense e.

An erori binare 5s would be testing a piping system for all combinations of settings of its manually operated valves.

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A balanced Gray code can be constructed, [63] that flips every bit equally often. Since bit-flips are evenly distributed, this is optimal in the following way: balanced Gray codes minimize the maximal count of bit-flips for each digit.

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Gray code counters and arithmetic[ edit ] George R. Stibitz utilized a reflected binary code in a binary pulse counting device in already. The input and output counters inside such a dual-port FIFO are often stored using Gray code to prevent invalid transient states from being captured when the count crosses clock domains.

Each bit of the pointers is sampled non-deterministically for this clock domain erori binare 5s. So for each bit, either the old value or the new value is propagated.

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Therefore, if more than one bit in the multi-bit pointer is changing at the sampling point, a "wrong" binary value neither new nor old can be propagated. By guaranteeing only one bit can be changing, Gray codes guarantee that the only possible sampled erori binare 5s are the new or old multi-bit value. Typically Gray codes of power-of-two length are used. Sometimes digital buses in electronic systems are used to convey quantities that can only increase or decrease by one at a time, for example the output of an event counter which is being passed between clock domains or to a digital-to-analog converter.

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The advantage of Gray codes in these applications is that differences in the propagation delays of the many wires that represent the bits of the code cannot cause the received value to go through states that are out of the Gray code sequence.

This is similar to the advantage of Gray codes in the construction of mechanical encoders, however the source of the Gray code is an electronic counter in this case.

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The counter itself must count in Gray code, or if the counter runs in binary then the output value from the counter must be reclocked after it has been converted to Gray erori binare 5s, because when a value is converted from binary to Gray code, [nb 1] it is possible that differences in the arrival times of the binary data bits into the binary-to-Gray conversion circuit will mean that the code could go briefly through states that are wildly out of sequence.

Adding a clocked register after the circuit strategie universală de opțiuni binare converts the count value to Gray code may introduce a clock cycle of latency, so counting directly in Gray code may be advantageous.

One way to increment a Gray code number is to convert it into ordinary binary code, [66] add one to it with a standard binary adder, and then convert the result back to Gray code.

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Doranincluding taking the output from the first latches of the master-slave flip flops in a binary ripple counter.