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Main article: Function generator A function generator is a device which produces simple repetitive waveforms. Such devices contain an electronic oscillatora circuit that is capable of creating a repetitive waveform.
Modern devices may use digital signal processing to synthesize waveforms, followed by a digital to analog converteror DAC, to produce an analog output. The most common waveform is a sine wavebut sawtoothstep pulsesquareand triangular waveform oscillators are commonly available as are arbitrary semnal comercial generators AWGs.
Arbitrary waveform generator[ edit ] Main article: Arbitrary waveform generator An arbitrary waveform generator AWG or ARB is a sophisticated signal generator that generates arbitrary waveforms within published limits of frequency range, accuracy, and output level.
Unlike a function generator that produces a small set of specific waveforms, an AWG allows the user to specify a source waveform in a variety of different ways.
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An AWG is generally more expensive than a function generator and often has less bandwidth. An AWG is used in higher-end design and test applications.
RF and microwave signal generators[ edit ] RF radio frequency and microwave signal generators are used for testing components, receivers and test systems in a wide variety of applications including cellular communications, WiFiWiMAXGPSaudio and video broadcasting, satellite communications, radar and electronic warfare. RF and microwave signal generators normally strategie de sfârșitul zilei cu opțiuni semnal comercial similar features and capabilities, but are differentiated by frequency range.
RF signal generators typically range from a few kHz to 6 GHz, while microwave signal generators cover a much wider frequency range, from less than 1 MHz to at least 20 GHz. Some models go as high as 70 GHz with a direct coaxial output, and up to hundreds of GHz when used with external waveguide source modules. RF and microwave signal generators can be classified further as analog or vector signal generators.
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Analog signal generators[ edit ] An analog RF signal generator Analog signal generators based on a sine-wave oscillator were common before the inception of digital electronics, and are still used.
There was a sharp distinction in purpose and design of semnal comercial and audio-frequency signal generators. RF RF signal generators produce continuous wave radio frequency signals of defined, adjustable, amplitude and frequency. Many models offer various types of analog modulation, either as standard equipment or as an optional capability to the semnal comercial unit. Semnal comercial wide range of output power is desirable, since different applications require different amounts of signal power.
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For example, if a signal has to travel through a very long cable out to an antenna, semnal comercial high output signal may be needed to overcome the losses through the cable and still have sufficient power at the antenna.
But when testing receiver sensitivity, a low semnal comercial level is required to see how the receiver behaves under low signal-to-noise conditions. RF signal generators are available as benchtop instruments, rackmount instruments, embeddable modules and in card-level formats.
Mobile, field-testing and airborne applications benefit from lighter, battery-operated platforms.
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In automated and production testing, web-browser access, which allows multi-source control, and faster frequency switching speeds improve test times and throughput. RF signal generators are required for servicing and setting up radio receiversand are used for professional RF applications. AF Audio-frequency signal generators semnal comercial signals cum să câștigi bani mult și rapid the audio-frequency range and above.
Applications include checking semnal comercial response of audio equipment, and many uses in the electronic laboratory. Equipment distortion can be measured using a very-low-distortion audio generator as the signal source, with appropriate equipment to measure output distortion harmonic-by-harmonic with a wave analyseror simply total harmonic distortion.
A distortion of 0. This has led to the development of the vector signal generator, which is also known as a digital signal generator. In addition, since modern commercial digital communication systems are almost all based on well-defined industry standards, many vector signal generators can generate signals based on these standards.
In contrast, military communication systems such as JTRSwhich place a great deal of importance on robustness and information security, typically use very proprietary methods.
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To test these types of communication systems, users will often create their own custom waveforms and download them into the vector signal generator to create the desired test signal. Digital pattern generator[ edit ] Main article: Digital pattern generator A logic signal generator or data pattern generator or digital pattern generator produces logic signals - that is logical 1s and 0s in the form of conventional voltage levels.
A digital pattern generator is used as stimulus source for digital integrated circuits and embedded systems - for functional validation and testing. Special purpose signal generators[ edit ] A pitch generator and a probe for locating a specific pair of wires amongst many, for example in a punch block.
In addition to the above general-purpose devices, there are several classes of signal generators designed for specific applications.
Pitch generators and audio generators[ edit ] A pitch generator is a type of signal generator optimized for use in audio and acoustics applications. Pitch generators typically include sine waves over the audio frequency range 20 Hz —20 kHz.
Sophisticated pitch generators will also include sweep generators a function which varies the output frequency over a range, in order to make frequency-domain measurementsmultipitch generators which output several pitches simultaneously, and are used to check for intermodulation distortion and other non-linear effectsand tone bursts used to measure response to transients. Such generators may include special signals to stimulate various digital effects and problems, such as clippingjitterbit errors ; they also often provide ways to manipulate the metadata associated with digital audio formats.
The term synthesizer is used for a device that generates audio signals for music, or that uses slightly more intricate methods. Computer programs[ edit ] Computer programs can be used to generate arbitrary waveforms on a general-purpose computer and output the waveform via an output interface.
Such programs may be provided commercially or be freeware.
Simple systems use a standard computer sound card as output device, limiting the accuracy of the output waveform and limiting frequency to lie within the audio-frequency band.
There are several different types of video signal generators in widespread use.
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Regardless of the specific type, the output of a video generator will generally contain synchronization signals appropriate for television, including horizontal and vertical sync pulses in analog or sync words in digital.
Video signal generators are available for a wide variety of applications, and for a wide variety of digital formats; many of these also include audio generation capability as the audio track is an important part of any video or television program or motion picture. Digital pattern generatorfor generating digital logic type of signals.